A Great Big Pragmatic Tax Idea From An Alumnus Entrepreneur

       An alumnus entrepreneur of our MBA program, Kevin Pelissier, recently brought up an interesting idea about how taxation could be improved. Given that it’s April 15, it seems appropriate to briefly share two big themes that emerged from the conversation. These are offered as alternatives to current approaches of taxing income:
         (1) a consumption tax scaled in proportion to the environmental footprints of goods and services. This is a variation on the idea of a sales tax. It is inspired by the same broadly supported concept that legal (but non-essential) activities that create large negative side effects are most appropriate for taxing. Taxes are sometimes seen as either discouraging certain behavior, and/or attempting to connect a purchase decision to costs imposed on everyone else as a consequence of a selfish choice (as a cigarette tax theoretically does). Why not focus more, therefore, on non-essential consumption choices with the worst side effects?
       (2) an aggregated corporate contribution. This was Kevin’s big idea, with the words slightly tweaked during the course of the conversation (although come to think of it collected corporate contribution makes for the best alliteration). We think this might be the more fresh and innovative of the two suggestions. What would be the impact of corporations being allowed to count (for federal tax purposes) the taxes paid by their employees working within the United States toward an “aggregated (or collected) contribution” to the public coffers? Effectively this would amount to companies getting a deduction for (a) keeping or creating jobs within the jurisdiction collecting the tax, and (b) sharing more of their profits with the people “doing the work.”
       A few details would need to be ironed-out, such as what would qualify as an “employee working within the United States” – but what if the definitions and details were adjusted to create an incentive in favor of re-localization of production and service-providing? Further, wouldn’t it provide some incentive for paying employees more? If large companies almost inevitably exploit the details of a tax code to minimize their tax payments, shouldn’t the fundamentals of the code allow for paying less when more prosperity is shared with people working in the jurisdiction that collects those taxes to pay for infrastructure and public services? This second idea might also be easier to implement because it would be fundamentally less disruptive of structures that (for better or worse) are oriented on taxing individual and corporate income.
       We don’t imagine that these ideas would be an easy sell – obviously there are many vested interests that would guard the status quo – but we hope that tax day gives us all a moment’s reason to meditate on how much more pragmatic and efficient our taxation system could become. Perhaps at a city or state or other sub-national level or in another country some society has tried something similar to one of these ideas? If you know of such an example, please let us know by commenting, thanks!
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Country data: emitting carbon not essential for wealth, development & happiness

HAPPINESSThis chart shows average development (HDI), income (GNI), emissions (CO2 per capita), and happiness (Gallup data) within groups of countries identified using model-based cluster analysis (click here for a draft of the full paper). The least developed group on average generated just 5% of the carbon emissions and 14% of the income of the most developed cluster, yet experienced an average of 93% of the happiness of that of residents of the most developed cluster. This least developed cluster would have had an even higher level of average happiness had countries with unusually negative recent experiences such as Egypt and Iraq been excluded. Between the two clusters with the highest self-reported happiness, one emits just 57% the carbon dioxide emissions of the other. Average happiness is lowest in the two clusters with medium levels of income and development. These observations, among others, are very salient to deciding how to further happiness at the individual, firm, and societal levels while reducing emissions and other negative environmental impacts. The results should provoke further work in measuring, understanding, and fostering conditions conducive to well-being. For a primer on the topic, click here. The paper will be discussed at the 2014 European Academy of Management conference.

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Top 10! Gee thanks :) but where are other governmental sustainability reports?

The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) just published its 5th Assessment Report (AR5). We’re now a quarter-century (about 25 years) into regularly summing-up thousands of peer-reviewed scientific studies. It’s striking that the language of the report is already partly in the past tense – an affirmation that, yes, we are already experiencing catastrophic changes to our climate.

In this context, I wanted to issue a belated (and humble, given this context) thanks to Elaine Cohen for recognizing our work as one of the Top 10 sustainability reports of 2013 – the Warsaw Integrated Sustainability Report (available here in English with some introduction-and-press-release here, with Polish version and press release here) was, as intended, a simple and easy-to-absorb statistical snapshot of the sustainability profile of a capital city of one of the largest countries in Europe. But really? Given a practically unanimous chorus (10,883 out of 10,885 peer-reviewed scientific articles in 2013) stating that anthropogenic climate change is a serious problem, why aren’t all governments (sub-national and national) cataloging their aggregate impact (as public sector actors and as representatives of political subdivisions)? Why was it newsworthy that a capital city took a foray into publishing its environmental, societal, and economic performance?

A few more observations about the IPCC and the bigger picture

It bears emphasizing (since this is somehow rarely if ever mentioned in the mainstream news media) that the IPCC process is actually inherently conservative rather than alarmist, since reviewers must arrive at the minimum that all participants can agree upon. Even so, we have now (past tense) observed enough radical, costly changes to climate and weather patterns that even using the measured, careful language of scientific prose, AR5 tells us that we – everyone on the planet – should expect to feel the effects of climate change (as if most of us feel we have not already), and that no institution is truly prepared to protect us from crises such as food shortages (and/or price spikes), extreme weather events, and conflict (meaning riots or war) over basic needs, with the worst suffering to be (or being, or already has been) experienced by the world’s poorest.

A final observation to share. I didn’t mean to raise this one, but it just hit me. Back in high school in the early 1990s, we were already reading about climate change. Yes. Just after 1990, our text The Coming Crises already stated matter-of-factly, as if it was obvious already for years (and mind you, this was a high school textbook) that the wars of the 21st Century were going to be over water and other basic needs. It’s not like any of us (to my knowledge) became survivalists as a result, but really, isn’t it amazing that a quarter century later, the destruction of the biosphere’s life support system is still something in the realm of scientific study – rather than of primary concern – like a wartime mobilization – for industry and government leaders?

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Being Happy … and Everything Else. Plus: Are You Happy?

There’s growing interest in happiness (or well-being/satisfaction) across academic disciplines.

Want Happiness? Health, Age, Relationships & Work Matter. 

A great primer on the basics is this podcast interview with Carol Graham of Brookings. Among other fascinating realities, Carol and interviewer Fred Dews discuss the paradox of “frustrated achievers and happy peasants,” the relative importance of health, work, wealth, age, religiosity, and relationships (see article: You can’t be happier than your wife :) ), the average well-being of protesters around the world, and the fact that among great apes, just as in humans, the relationship of happiness to age follows a “smiley curve” (not exactly how they referred to it, so may I claim authorship of that term :) ?

What About Emitting Carbon, Development, Wealth… Related to Happiness?

I just posted a paper at my SSRN author page that was recently accepted for presentation at the European Academy of Management’s 2014 Annual Conference (Euram2014) that tests whether there is a relationship (across countries) between human development (as measured by the Human Development Index, or HDI), income (per capita), carbon emissions (per capita), and self-reported happiness. The paper uses model-based cluster analysis (for which I have to thank my coauthor D. Steven White) to explore whether there exist clearly defined clusters of statistically similar countries, and what are their characteristics. I thought there might be a few surprises. It turns out there were – and not the surprises I was expecting :). As Carol mentions in the podcast, there are countries where self-reported happiness (like Nigeria and Venezuela) where happiness is much higher than one would expect based on conventional measures of average wealth per capita. Consistent with that observation, our study found (to somewhat simplify), that as countries move “up” in terms of “development” cohorts (as measured by HDI, emissions, income per person), average self-reported happiness actually dips before trending back up (come to think of it, this is not dissimilar to the phenomenon of aging – as we age, average happiness dips in the mid-life era before trending back up). It’s quite striking to see the average carbon footprints of the various mathematically-determined clusters and see comparatively tiny per capita emissions in a cluster of countries where happiness levels rival those in the highest emitting countries. In a nutshell: no, you don’t need to emit carbon to have happiness, among other take-aways.

So here’s the link to the abstract of the paper (whence you may download it). In a neat coincidence, it was accepted to Euram2014 on the same day as I stumbled upon the Tweet of the Brookings podcast, which made me want to post this follow-up right away. Since then, I made some edits to the paper based on reviewer feedback (which are in the version you can access above).

Since I wrote this blog post before finishing the edits, I created something to amuse visitors to this site in the meantime – my first attempt at a poll on this blog (see below, especially the disclaimer that it’s just intended for fun :)

 

 

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Update: Summing-Up COP19, plus: what do Dartmouth MA and Warsaw PL have in common?

Wow, does time fly! Here’s an update on a few items from November 2013 to March 2014:

(1) the UN Climate Conference in Warsaw (COP19) was quite an experience. I’ve posted a few pics below. Click here for the best summary that I have seen of the roughly two weeks of proceedings (in that it is comprehensive-yet-accessible) – it originally appeared on the excellent blog of students at Vermont Law School and their summary was republished by the Huffington Post. Special thanks to one of the members of the VLS delegation, Lindsay Speer, for observing, taking notes, and helping compile the take-aways of several roundtable conversations that resulted in a summary: Outcomes of the Warsaw Dialogues on Scaling-Up Local and Sub-National Climate Action (link #17 here). As underscored by the presence of Secretary General Ban Ki-moon at one of the meetings (see below), and as explained in a few previous posts to this blog, it is the world’s cities that are feeling effects, setting goals, and actually executing plans to reduce emissions that contribute to climate change.

(2) while it’s fascinating to watch people try to bring about positive changes through treaty negotiations and by sharing best practices in a large forum (and, of course, it is fun to meet inspiring people like Philippines delegate Naderev “Yeb” Sano), it was equally fantastic to have come back to my university’s hometown of Dartmouth, Massachusetts. What a treat, at the start of spring semester 2014, to watch my students present their hard work in updating the Town of Dartmouth’s Sustainability Report for 2013. Not only did the town leadership appreciate their preparation and presentation of the new report, featuring updated data and formatting from the inaugural edition in 2012, they said it would actively be used in evaluating the efficacy and desirability of various town initiatives as well as the town’s progress toward sustainability goals. Town Administrator David Cressman particularly highlighted that people consider such information when deciding where to reside. To take one example of an achievement worth publicizing: Dartmouth leads all other municipalities in Massachusetts – even Boston – in terms of solar electricity generation.

(3) now to answer the question: “what Dartmouth MA and Warsaw PL have in common” – there is at least one big similarity – both municipalities are in the vanguard of local governments publishing sustainability reports. Just like the leadership in Dartmouth sees value in publishing data on governance and environmental, societal, and economic performance, so does Mayor Hanna Gronkiewicz-Waltz of Warsaw, Poland. The report can be found in English on Warsaw’s homepage for investors, and in Polish on the Warsaw Department of Infrastructure’s homepage.

It’s interesting how the last year came full-circle: we had prepared sustainability reports for our university, which led to us preparing one for a local town and city at the end of 2012, which led to my suggesting and preparing one with the Warsaw Department of Infrastructure, which led to my speaking about sustainability reporting in Warsaw during the UN Climate Conference. Then, upon returning to the South Coast region of Massachusetts at the start of 2014, it’s clear our students here are keeping the ball rolling on many worthy projects. Thanks to everyone along the way and onward in 2014 and beyond :)

Below are some pics from COP19.

UN Secretary-General Ban Ki-moon addressing one of the meetings out of the Warsaw Dialogues on Scaling-Up Local and Sub-National Climate Action, part of the UN Climate Conference in Warsaw, Poland:ImageThe NASA Hyperwall at the American pavilion at COP19 in Poland – showing aerosols in the atmosphere – this is an enhanced visualization of satellite data showing how dust particles can cross the Atlantic from Africa to the Caribbean – search their entire library of presentations here - they are mesmerizing!ImageAs described in the first link above (summarizing the proceedings at COP19), negotiators worked long into the final nights to agree upon, at the very least (and among other things), what they could later agree upon. This turns out to be harder than it sounds. A lot of people in that room, especially those at the negotiating table have truly impressive amounts of patience.ImageAnother pic of the negotiation room just as a break begins.ImageThese people (I’m horrible at estimating crowds, but I’d guess there were easily more than 300, 400, or even 500?) are mostly from NGOs (Non-Governmental Organizations) that were still there in the final nights, making their frustrations heard by chanting at the rooms where negotiations and other rooms with official proceedings where only credentialed parties or observers could enter. I was impressed because the acoustics of the National Stadium were such that the chants were magnified and echoed so that it sounded like a crowd of thousands when heard from inside the official proceedings:ImageHere’s another of the negotiations:ImageSomewhere in the middle of this huddle a few people with a piece of paper and a pen were trying to agree on just a few words – again, see the first link above to get an idea of what kind of minutia were keeping people in this room, rather than either sleeping or enjoying Warsaw’s fantastic nightlife.ImageTogether with local students and activists and city employees before COP-19 started, we planted several thousand trees to help offset the carbon footprint of the conference:ImageWith Philippines delegate Naderev “Yeb” Sano, shortly after Typhoon Haiyan leveled his hometown and he went on his hunger strike to try to add a sense of urgency to successfully negotiation an international treaty to reduce emissions that are changing climate.ImageThe prerequisite street march protest – some of these people took trains in from other parts of Europe. My impression is that everyone involved in these negotiations means well and are trying to bring about change as best as they know how – whether that means protesting or participating as a delegate, observer, or some kind of advocate or adviser or administrator or academic. Since national delegates to a treaty negotiation are ultimately taking orders from their respective capitals, it seemed to me that protests, lobbying, and pressure would be more effective if they were directed to national leaders at home. But maybe creating a sense of pressure at or near the negotiations might have its role?ImagePart of the Warsaw Dialogues on Scaling-Up Local and Sub-National Climate Action:ImageClimate science is not, in fact, rocket science (below). Observed realities fit with what was expected for many decades now (and using ice core samples, there is supporting evidence over a few hundred millennia): more emissions of gases that trap heat are raising average atmospheric temperature and the temperature of surface waters of the oceans, resulting altered wind currents, extreme changes in precipitation patterns, and other aberrational and catastrophic weather events (among other predicted and now observed phenomena). The only news for a lot of us is that some changes are happening a bit faster than we expected.ImageThis was part of the venue – the impressive and new Museum of the Polish Jews – where we had roundtable dialogues about scaling-up local and sub-national action.ImageWith Bolivian delegates in traditional garb. Consistent with their reputation for being mindful of our connection to Mother Earth, the delegate’s first reaction after trying his first sip of local beer was to smile and ask what were the ingredients.ImageWith the founder of the German Green Party:ImageIs it just me, or is image of a horse (technically not a pantomime horse) checking his smartphone somehow amusing? Keep scrolling down to find out why this fellow was hanging around COP19.ImageIf we look past the Angry Bird and other costumes, these protesters actually have a serious and valid point – the more we move away from meat consumption and even past vegetarianism to the vegan end of the dietary spectrum, we do reduce our impact on the environment by orders of magnitude. I don’t know if any attendees’ choices at the food courts were altered by these people, but thanks, guys, for trying in your own way to spread the word :)ImageThis was the view in one of two approaches into the National Stadium. Both involved going through airport-style metal detectors and scanning, maybe to keep out Very Angry Birds :)ImageWith Prof. Cynthia Rosenzweig of Columbia U. and NASA and Leszek Drogosz, Director of the Warsaw Department of Infrastructure, at the pavilion of the USA at the Polish National Stadium – Cynthia was among several people who delivered excellent presentations on global climactic patterns and more local or regional phenomena using the NASA Hyperwall. Even those who who are frustrated with the role of the USA in the history of climate treaty negotiations admitted they liked the excellent science discussions and availability of outstanding free coffee – thanks for that, all of you working there :)ImageCool view looking up at the suspended ceiling of the National Stadium, the site of most of the COP-19 events:ImageThis is a great idea for promoting (hopefully local) produce and an event, isn’t it:ImageEuropean bison: Białowieża National Park being the only place you can see them in the wild, it made perfect sense to display images of them, among other wildlife, in the corridors during COP-19. Only 10,000 foreigners visit the park annually – this gem of territory (apparently somewhat unknown to the rest of the world) straddling the Polish-Belarusian border (yes, that’s how multiple sources say “Belarusian” is spelled in English) is said to be the last remaining primeval European forest. Largely untouched for most of the past millennium, the land formerly was set aside as prime hunting grounds for the privileged before becoming a National Park.ImageMore wildlife in Białowieża National Park - images in the corridors of COP-19:ImageMore wildlife in Białowieża National Park - images in the corridors of COP-19:ImageMore wildlife in Białowieża National Park - images in the corridors of COP-19:Image

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UN Climate Change Conference in Warsaw Opens

Location of most events and pavilions of parties and exhibits

Location of most events and pavilions of parties and exhibits

Philippines representative at COP19 speaking at opening

Philippines representative at COP19 speaking at opening

Party representatives and observers from IGOs and NGOs at opening session of COP19

Party representatives and observers from IGOs and NGOs at opening session of COP19

The UN Climate Change Conference (known as COP19/CMP9) has opened.

Here are some reflections/updates, roughly 2-and-a-half days into the 13-day event:

(1) the most powerful moment so far was the speech of the representative of the Philippines at the opening session, at which he described his brother who is gathering bodies of the dead in the wake of Supertyphoon Haiyan.

(2) some things that I was told or read prior to the opening come with qualifiers (or the reality depends on who you ask) – among veterans of COP meetings, some say that NGOs and the business community have less access than in prior COP meetings, some say the level is about the same, some say they are being engaged more.

(3) what is being confirmed by veterans of COP meetings (so far) is that the level of sub-national governmental engagement may be greater than in the past – see my previous blog post explaining why this is significant.

(4) apparently, learning-on-the-fly is normal for a first-time observer/participant/adviser.

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UN Climate Change Conference in Warsaw to Engage with Stakeholders & Cities & Promote Replicable Best Practices & Measurement

According to several sources, the UN Climate Summit (November 11-22) in Warsaw, Poland (know as COP19/CMP9) will be noteworthy for a few reasons:

(1)    A Range of Stakeholders Will Have Their Voices Heard.  Polish Environment Minister and President of the COP19 Conference Marcin Korolec has already held preparatory meetings with, among others, business leaders – the summary of take-aways from these consultations is available online.  NGOs and other stakeholders also have been and continue to be consulted and are having a voice during the eleven days of meetings.

(2)    Cities and Subnational Governments Will be Included as Focal Points of Consultation and Action.  Representatives of cities and other subnational levels of government will be meeting repeatedly to discuss actions that they have been taking and their ideas for what should be done with regard to mitigation of the ongoing and worsening climate crisis.  Their conclusions and suggestions will be finalized and communicated on November 20 and 21.

(3)    Best Practices Will Be Considered and Promoted.  Specifically, the two days of subnational governmental conversations will consider best practices in terms of mitigation and adaptation that can be replicated.

(4)    “We Can Manage What We Measure” Will Be a Theme.  This is a truism in all areas of human activity, and obvious to anyone who has tried to manage anything.  Even if no goals are established for emissions reductions, the very act of measuring and publishing environmental impact data has been shown to work in various contexts related to pollution and waste.  Regardless of when or what goals are eventually set, the measurement and tracking of emissions is an essential first step toward achieving them.  So propagating the practice of measurement and reporting is vital, and will be highlighted in, among other venues, the dialogue on best practices of cities.

The City of Warsaw provides a perfect illustration of why the themes above make sense.  The City recently published its 2013 Integrated Sustainability Report (press releases and the report are available in English and Polish).

95% of the world’s largest 250 corporations over 4,000 organizations already publish data on their environmental, societal, and economic impacts, but Warsaw is at the vanguard of cities to do so (and the first of any entity to adopt the latest GRI standard).

If cities embraced measuring and publishing environmental impact data on a widespread basis, it could be a critical step toward curbing costly, needless, and destructive environmental negative side effects of how we conduct our daily affairs – including those that are contributing to climate change.  This statement is supported by five facts:

(1) a majority of the planet’s +7 billion (soon to be 9 billion) people  now lives in cities (a recent epochal tipping point);

(2) we enjoy a greater degree of access to – and control over – local government (compared to national government);

(3) many energy, water, sewage, waste, transportation, and other infrastructures are managed by municipalities (or other sub-national levels);

(4) inasmuch as public infrastructure functions are often outsourced, reporting can involve (and thereby put appropriate constructive pressure on) for-profit infrastructure service companies.  In other words, cities can demand that partner companies and organizations start measuring, reporting, and reducing negative impacts;

(4) the long-predicted impacts of climate change are being acutely felt in the world’s cities – especially in major coastal metropolises providing an impetus for immediate constructive change and adaptation; and

(5) ambitious goals have been set and significant tangible steps taken by cities.

Cities and other sub-national units of organization therefore (1) are vital foci for change, (2) deserve to have their voices heard, and (3) should have their readily replicable best practices – including efforts related to measurement – highlighted and propagated.

The 2013 UN Climate Change Conference hopefully will be remembered and applauded for acknowledging and acting upon these realities.

More details about goals and aspirations for the Warsaw COP19 Climate Summit may be found here.

The author helped the Warsaw Department of Infrastructure prepare the City’s 2013 Integrated Sustainability Report and is scheduled to speak about the importance of measuring environmental impacts at the COP19/CMP9 UN Climate Change Conference.  He is a tenured associate professor of business law and sustainability at University of Massachusetts Dartmouth and since 2006 has also taught courses and seminars in other countries, including in Poland at the Warsaw University of Life Sciences.  He has authored over 30 publications, focusing primarily on sustainability reporting.

Adam J. Sulkowski

Associate Professor of Business Law and Sustainability

University of Massachusetts Dartmouth

Visiting Professor at Warsaw University of Life Sciences

Email: asulkowski@umassd.edu

Twitter:  @adam_sulkowski

Articles: ssrn.com/author=482263

Google+: gplus.to/AdamSulkowski

Linked In: linkedin.com/in/adamsulkowski

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Warsaw 2013 Integrated Sustainability Report – and why cities are vital focal points for measurement and action

The City of Warsaw recently published its 2013 Integrated Sustainability Report (press releases and the report are available in English and Polish). 

95% of the world’s largest 250 corporations over 4,000 organizations already publish data on their environmental, societal, and economic impacts, but Warsaw is at the vanguard of cities to do so (and the first of any entity to adopt the latest GRI standard).

If cities embraced measuring and publishing environmental impact data on a widespread basis, it could be a critical step toward curbing costly, needless, and destructive environmental negative side effects of how we conduct our daily affairs – including those that are contributing to climate change.  This statement is supported by five facts:

(1) a majority of the planet’s +7 billion (soon to be 9 billion) people  now lives in cities (a recent epochal tipping point);

(2) we enjoy a greater degree of access to – and control over – local government (compared to national government);

(3) many energy, water, sewage, waste, transportation, and other infrastructures are managed by municipalities (or other sub-national levels);

(4) inasmuch as public infrastructure functions are often outsourced, reporting can involve (and thereby put appropriate constructive pressure on) for-profit infrastructure service companies.  In other words, cities can demand that companies and other organizations start measuring, reporting, and reducing negative impacts;

(4) the long-predicted impacts of climate change are being acutely felt in the world’s cities – especially in major coastal metropolises providing an impetus for immediate constructive change and adaptation; and

(5) ambitious goals have been set and significant tangible steps taken by cities.

Cities and other sub-national units of organization therefore (1) are vital foci for change, (2) deserve to have their voices heard, and (3) should have their readily replicable best practices – including efforts related to measurement – highlighted and propagated.

The author helped the Warsaw Department of Infrastructure prepare the City’s 2013 Integrated Sustainability Report and is scheduled to speak about the importance of measuring environmental impacts at the COP19/CMP9 UN Climate Change Conference.

 

 

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Question: What’s cybersecurity got to do with sustainability? Answer: Materiality.

A student once asked me what an article on Duties and Risks Related to Cyber-Extortion has in common with the other things I research. Previously, my answer was (paraphrasing the Brundtland Commission definition): “sustainability means thriving today in a way that lets us thrive in the future; anything that prevents that is unsustainable, so cybersecurity issues are relevant.” Today’s 1-word answer: materiality. Here’s what I mean and why this matters:

I was just catching-up on the SEC‘s guidance on materiality (what a reasonable investor would want to know before making a decision, which is the standard for deciding what publicly-traded companies must disclose), and came across commentary in the Washington Post by Senator Jay Rockefeller and Michael Chertoff supporting the SEC Division of Corporation Finance‘s views that risks and incidents related to cybersecurity should be disclosed.

The argument (essentially) is that it’s both in our collective self-interest and the best interest of investors for companies to publicly report on risks and incidents related to cybersecurity (for example, when the information system of a company is hacked and private information of clients is stolen). While the authors don’t explicitly elaborate, the reasoning is that companies manage more carefully issues about which they need to publicly report. That is the same argument that many have been making about risks and data related to societal and environmental issues. Several thousand organizations engage in sustainability reporting, including 95% of the Global Fortune 250. An important question, however, is whether more encouragement from governments (through laws, regulations, or guidance) of disclosure of societal and environmental impacts would be constructive.

The next time this topic comes up, let’s remember that the SEC and its divisions do encourage disclosures of non-financial data such as, in this instance, the security of information systems. Is it any less relevant, from a public policy perspective or to the self-interested investor, when a company amplifies or mitigates risks, costs, and harms related to issues ranging from use of coerced labor to the collapse of planetary life support systems? If we generally support government encouragement of disclosure in analogous situations (security of information systems), shouldn’t we also support more explicit government encouragement disclosing a broader array of societal and environmental risks and data?

Some of the themes of my upcoming articles will be (1) whether existing materiality standards already behoove disclosure of a wider range of societal and environmental impacts and (2) would more explicit and specific guidance from regulators be helpful and (3) that cooperation between regulated companies (most of whom already have expertise in disclosure of societal and environmental impacts) and regulators would both be the most efficient reaction on the part of executives and yield the best results.

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Congrats students, Net Impact, Fall River & Town of Dartmouth: 3 world firsts, 2 national firsts!

Congrats students, Net Impact, Fall River & Town of Dartmouth: 3 world firsts, 2 national firsts!.

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